Step 1 – Look at instruments in sequence. Start with the airspeed indicator. Then use the attitude indicator to calculate plane’s position in relation to the horizon. The brown on the dial represents the earth and the blue the sky. The pilot should try to establish whether the aircraft is pitched up or down and whether it is banking.
After that the pilot should use the altimeter to get an altitude reading before using the vertical speed indicator to work out how fast the plane is ascending or descending.
Step 2 – Stabilise the aircraft with the help of the control wheel, which the pilot pulls towards his body and downwards if he needs to climb. Should he need to descend, the wheel is pushed up and away from the body.
Step 3 – Ascertain where the airfield is, by looking out of the window. The pilot should then, using the control wheel, line up the plane with the airstrip.
Step 4 – Having levelled the aircraft, line up the plane with the landing strip at an altitude of about 1,000ft, before using the throttle to reduce power pushing it in part of the way.
The pilot should aim at the threshold of the runway which should always be stable in the windscreen, avoiding the danger of overshooting or undershooting.
Step 5 – At about 20ft above the runway, the pilot has four steps to complete. First, he should raise the nose slightly which slows the descent and the aircraft speed.
Then, when the plane is about 1ft off the ground comes the “hold-off”, the throttle is pushed in and the control wheel is pushed forward – so the plane is flying level and slowly.
This allows the plane to gently touch down – back wheels first. Finally the pilot uses the pedals to control the rudder and brakes to bring the plane to a stop.